Skip to content

Members of the Boltzmann Institute maintain a library of diverse but relevant online references. A searchable listing of those references is available here. This listing will be updated at irregular intervals as the collection grows. Inclusion of any reference in the listing does not imply endorsement by the Boltzmann Institute of the material being referred to.

References / resources listed below are particularly notable in regard to district energy in Canada. Please check back, as this list will also change from time-to-time.

  • The Potential for District Energy in Metro Toronto (1995)
    This prescient, highly detailed report included in its conclusions: “The environmental benefits gained through the better integration of Metro Toronto’s energy systems – particularly utilization of heat rejected from power generation and the reduction or elimination of CFCs in the City core through central or Deep Lake Water Cooling – are probably greater than can be realistically expected from other measures. Phases 1 and 2 alone could contribute about 14% to Metro’s CO2 stabilization target and would largely eliminate CFCs in the downtown. If the project were credited with a CO2 credit for displaced coal fired generation elsewhere, the reduction could for Phases I and 2 could reach about 53% of the CO2 reduction target for Metro. The ultimate expansion of district heating in Metro, using heat from central or distributed power plants, could alone achieve up to 240% of Metro’s or 13% of Canada’s CO2 stabilization target.”
  • Enwave Energy Corporation
    The privatized successor to the Toronto District Heating Corporation, Enwave works “to provide sustainable district energy solutions that suit the needs of individual communities. Enwave is the leading core-competency district energy operator in North America.”
  • Creative Energy
    “Creative Energy owns and operates one of the largest district energy systems in North America. Since 1968, we’ve been delivering outstanding customer service with a 99.99% reliability record; today, our original plant in downtown Vancouver now serves over 215 customers across more than 45 million square feet of connected real estate.

    Aiming to bring low-carbon district energy to cities across North America, Creative Energy is currently developing 15 new district energy projects with a range of innovative technologies including ocean-exchange, geo-exchange, biomass, cogeneration/CHP, and microgrids.”
  • FVB Energy Inc.
    “FVB Energy Inc. (FVB) is a full scope engineering and management consulting company, specializing in energy – including plant design, biomass considerations, heat pumps, and Combined Heat and Power. FVB brings 30 years of study, design, installation, and operational experience based on successful systems in Canada. Thanks to experiences from feasibility studies to design to the installation of operational systems, from natural gas to bioenergy to co-generation, FVB is able to bring real-world experience to the planning and consulting process.”
  • International District Energy Association – Project Overview
    “The International District Energy Association (IDEA) works actively to foster the success of our members as leaders in providing reliable, economical, efficient, and environmentally sound district heating, district cooling, and combined heat and power.”
  • International Energy Agency District Heating and Cooling (IEA DHC) Project Overview
    “The IEA Technology Collaboration Programme on District Heating and Cooling was founded as the Implementing Agreement for a Programme of Research, Development, and Demonstration on District Heating and Cooling, including the integration of Combined Heat and Power in 1983.” This is an overview of IEA DHC projects sorted by topic.
  • QUEST Canada
    “QUEST Canada is a national non-profit that supports communities in Canada on their pathway to net-zero. Since 2007, we’ve been facilitating connections, empowering community champions and influencing decision-makers to implement efficient and integrated energy systems that best meet community needs and maximize local opportunities. We develop tools and resources, convene stakeholders and rights holders and advise decision-makers — all with the goal of encouraging and enabling communities to contribute to Canada’s net-zero goals.” 
  • District Heating Supply from Nuclear Power Plants
    “Nuclear energy is competitive for urban district heating applications. According to the International Atomic Energy Agency, about 43 nuclear reactors around the world—mostly in Eastern Europe and Russia—provide district heating in addition to generating electricity. Combined heat and power arrangements are more attractive for new small- and medium-sized nuclear reactors because these designs incorporate enhanced safety features, require smaller investments, pose fewer financial risks, and may be easier to site closer to end-users.”